Tuesday, September 25, 2007

Convertibility + floating rates: sooner rather than later

Subir Gokarn has a piece in Business Standard about the great debates of exchange rate flexibility and convertibility, where he says:

... the rupee appreciated by about 10 per cent in a matter of months, the same magnitude of change it had experienced in the much longer period of five years. Not too many people complained about a 10 per cent change over five years, whereas lots of people screamed bloody murder at the appreciation between March and July 2007.

Until last weeks developments, it appeared that the RBI was reverting to the managed exchange rate approach, after having allowed a 10-12 per cent appreciation to take place. Last weeks surge, however, demonstrated that even this position may be untenable in a relatively stable global financial environment, in which India is among the more attractive investment destinations and looks likely to attract larger and larger capital inflows as more and more investors try not to lose out on the opportunity. If this trend continues, it will make no difference at what exchange rate appreciation is resisted. Further reserve accumulation and the monetary pressures that it exerts are inevitable.

The only sustainable exchange rate policy in this situation is a genuine float. This, in turn, can be accomplished only in an environment of full convertibility. For a market to function efficiently, all eligible participants should be able to trade without restriction; currently, the limits on outward investments by resident individuals, as generous as they may be, are a constraining factor on efficient price discovery.

But, this is easy to justify as an objective or target. What does cause concern is the speed of transition. As is quite clearly demonstrated by the contrast in the rate of rupee appreciation in the recent past, a gradual movement is quite palatable to all those who might be impacted by it, whereas a rapid adjustment of similar magnitude towards a market outcome (which, clearly, hasn't been reached yet) raises howls of protest, presumably because they have not been able to counter the effects of appreciation with offsetting increases in efficiency in the short time available.

If one accepts the inevitability of a market-determined exchange rate (whatever it may be), while also recognising that abrupt movements are disruptive and painful, finding the middle ground involves laying out a transition roadmap, which will allow us to achieve the objective in a reasonably short period of time, while also allowing affected interests to make the adjustments necessary to accommodate the change.

We do have a transition plan towards full convertibility, which visualises us achieving that state by 2011. Going by our recent experience with the increase in capital inflows, however, that is way too far into the future. However, whatever the timeframe that may be set, there are two key preconditions that need to be fulfilled. First, the financial system has to raise its levels of protection against the eventuality of sudden and sharp capital outflows. This requires both consolidation amongst sub-optimally sized institutions and sophisticated risk management systems. The latter are being steadily built up but the former is clearly not taking place at a rate that is consistent even with this very generous timeframe.

Second, the markets and instruments that investors and intermediaries need to hedge their exposures at as low a cost as possible need to be developed or, where they already exist, strengthened. Both these are processes involving continuous movement towards an end goal, which is itself constantly shifting, so they can never be deemed to be finished. Equally, however, there is some minimum threshold at which the benefits of a floating currency outweigh the risks; it is this threshold which needs to be targeted within a timeframe that is far shorter than seven or five or even four years.


So far, we have been looking at a floating rupee as the culmination of a long and elaborate process, which may never end. In todays global environment, we will be better off doing the reverse; accept a floating rupee as both inevitable and desirable and work backwards to satisfy some critical threshold conditions as quickly as possible

1 comment:

  1. more than half the junta in india is still unable to afford basic necessities like two square meals and shelter.. when we open up completely, will we not marginalise these groups further into oblivion as asset prices put even these things beyond their reach? in all appreciation of convertibility, the primary responsibility of the central bank is towards making sure all classes of citizens benefit, if not equally. especially since the govt is not bothered about the have nots..


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